Salvadori, Elio (2005) Traffic engineering in dynamic optical networks. UNSPECIFIED thesis, UNSPECIFIED.
Traffic Engineering (TE) refers to all the techniques a Service Provider employs to improve the efficiency and reliability of network operations. In IP over Optical (IPO) networks, traffic coming from upper layers is carried over the logical topology defined by the set of established lightpaths. Within this framework then, TE techniques allow to optimize the configuration of optical resources with respect to an highly dynamic traffic demand. TE can be performed with two main methods: if the demand is known only in terms of an aggregated traffic matrix, the problem of automatically updating the configuration of an optical network to accommodate traffic changes is called Virtual Topology Reconfiguration (VTR). If instead the traffic demand is known in terms of data-level connection requests with sub-wavelength granularity, arriving dynamically from some source node to any destination node, the problem is called Dynamic Traffic Grooming (DTG). In this dissertation new VTR algorithms for load balancing in optical networks based on Local Search (LS) techniques are presented. The main advantage of using LS is the minimization of network disruption, since the reconfiguration involves only a small part of the network. A comparison between the proposed schemes and the optimal solutions found via an ILP solver shows calculation time savings for comparable results of network congestion. A similar load balancing technique has been applied to alleviate congestion in an MPLS network, based on the efficient rerouting of Label-Switched Paths (LSP) from the most congested links to allow a better usage of network resources. Many algorithms have been developed to deal with DTG in IPO networks, where most of the attention is focused on optimizing the physical resources utilization by considering specific constraints on the optical node architecture, while very few attention has been put so far on the Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees for the carried traffic. In this thesis a novel Traffic Engineering scheme is proposed to guarantee QoS from both the viewpoint of service differentiation and transmission quality. Another contribution in this thesis is a formal framework for the definition of dynamic grooming policies in IPO networks. The framework is then specialized for an overlay architecture, where the control plane of the IP and optical level are separated, and no information is shared between the two. A family of grooming policies based on constraints on the number of hops and on the bandwidth sharing degree at the IP level is defined, and its performance analyzed in both regular and irregular topologies. While most of the literature on DTG problem implicitly considers the grooming of low-speed connections onto optical channels using a TDM approach, the proposed grooming policies are evaluated here by considering a realistic traffic model which consider a Dynamic Statistical Multiplexing (DSM) approach, i.e. a single wavelength channel is shared between multiple IP elastic traffic flows.
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